The physical environment of school buildings and school grounds is a key factor in the overall health and safety of students, staff, and visitors. School buildings and grounds must be designed and maintained to be free of health and safety hazards, and to promote learning. We know that student achievement can be affected either positively or negatively by the school environment. Policies and protocols must be in place to ensure food protection, sanitation, safe water supply, healthy air quality, good lighting, safe playgrounds, violence prevention, and emergency response, among other issues that relate to the physical environment of schools. Well-designed schools can positively affect learning by focusing on issues such as location, building materials, size of classrooms, furniture and the inclusion of auxiliary facilities. Beyond the basic school infrastructure, the built environment can also become a powerful support for learning by emphasizing literacy-rich displays and elements that reinforce the use of scientific and mathematical skills.